Jesus said, Then shall the righteous [those who are upright and in right standing with God] shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father.
References and Further Reading 1. Conceptual Framework for the Debate Psychological egoism is a thesis about motivation, usually with a focus on the motivation of human intentional action.
A famous story involving Abraham Lincoln usefully illustrates this see Rachelsp. Lincoln was allegedly arguing that we are all ultimately self-interested when he suddenly stopped to save a group of piglets from drowning. His interlocutor seized the moment, attempting to point out that Lincoln is a living counter-example to his own theory; Lincoln seemed to be concerned with something other than what he took to be his own well-being.
But Lincoln reportedly replied: The story illustrates that there are many subtle moves for the defender of psychological egoism to make. So it is important to get a clear idea of the competing egoistic versus altruistic theories and of the terms of the debate between them.
The Bare Theses Egoism is often contrasted with altruism.
Although the egoism-altruism debate concerns the possibility of altruism in some sense, the ordinary term "altruism" may not track the issue that is of primary interest here. In at least one ordinary use of the term, for someone to act altruistically depends on her being motivated solely by a concern for the welfare of another, without any ulterior motive to simply benefit herself.
To this extent, this ordinary notion of altruism is close to what is of philosophical interest. But there are differences.
Developing a clear and precise account of the egoism-altruism debate is more difficult than it might seem at first. To make the task easier, we may begin with quite bare and schematic definitions of the positions in the debate Mayp. All of our ultimate desires are egoistic.
Some of our ultimate desires are altruistic. Answering these and related questions will provide the requisite framework for the debate. Altruistic Desires We can begin to add substance to our bare theses by characterizing what it is to have an altruistic versus an egoistic desire.
With these points in mind, we can characterize egoistic and altruistic desires in the following way: They do claim, however, that all such altruistic desires ultimately depend on an egoistic desire that is more basic.
In other words, we have an ulterior motive when we help others—one that likely tends to fly below the radar of consciousness or introspection. Thus, we must draw a common philosophical distinction between desires that are for a means to an end and desires for an end in itself. Desires for pleasure and the avoidance of pain are paradigmatic ultimate desires, since people often desire these as ends in themselves, not as a mere means to anything else.
But the class of ultimate desires may include much more than this. Relating Egoism and Altruism There are two important aspects to highlight regarding how psychological egoism and altruism relate to one another. First, psychological egoism makes a stronger, universal claim that all of our ultimate desires are egoistic, while psychological altruism merely makes the weaker claim that some of our ultimate desires are altruistic.
Consequently, psychological egoism is easier to refute than the opposing view. He does not desire this as a means to some other end, such as enjoyment at the sight of such a spectacle he might, for example, secure this in his will for after his death.
It would show that psychological egoism is false, since it would demonstrate that some of our ultimate desires are not egoistic. However, it would not show that psychological altruism is true, since it does not show that some of our ultimate desires are altruistic.
Likewise, suppose that psychological altruism is false because none of our ultimate desires concern the benefit of others. If that is true, psychological egoism is not thereby true.
The point is that the theses are contraries: Indeed, the only major figures in the history of philosophy to endorse the view explicitly are arguably Thomas Hobbes and Jeremy Bentham.
Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne.
This view restricts the kind of self-interest we can ultimately desire to pleasure or the avoidance of pain. Desire Ownership One tempting argument for psychological egoism is based on what seem to be conceptual truths about intentional action.Thus at Venice the College, even in the absence of the Doge, is called "Most Serene Prince." The Palatine of Posen, father of the King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine.
Psychological Egoism. Psychological egoism is the thesis that we are always deep down motivated by what we perceive to be in our own self-interest. Psychological altruism, on the other hand, is the view that sometimes we can have ultimately altruistic motives.
Suppose, for example, that Pam saves Jim from a burning office building. What ultimately motivated her to do this? Knowledge is like a drug, the more you gains, the more one craves - Can Knowledge Be a Burden Rather Than a Benefit?
introduction. It’s widely acknowledged that the knowledge is a powerful force, which exerted in everyone’s body. Retrospectively, from the history and my own experiences, knowledge can either enhance life or became destructive. Get an answer for 'Can knowledge be a burden rather than a benefit?' and find homework help for other Business questions at eNotes.
I felt like a burden. Then I discovered John Stuart Mill and Milton Friedman and they said “People deserve to determine the course of their own lives” and “you own yourself” and stuff like that and I started entertaining the idea that I deserved to live, by virtue of being human.
Knowledge gives ability, and also duty, to make decisions, and decisions of the weight of the Coventry bombing dilemma are certainly a burden. However, Knowledge can obviously also be a benefit, allowing good and correct decisions to be made.