Hatshepsut's Expedition to Punt: Its Purpose and Commemoration In travelling to Punt, the Queen of Egypt was paying homage to a foreign land and a foreign king.
However, gold from Punt is recorded as having been in Egypt as early as the time of Pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty. In the reign of Mentuhotep III 11th dynasty, ca. Hatshepsut personally made the most famous ancient Egyptian expedition that sailed to Punt.
During the reign of Queen Hatshepsut in the 15th century BC, ships regularly crossed the Red Sea in order to obtain bitumencopper, carved amulets, naptha and other goods transported overland and down the Dead Sea to Elat at the head of the gulf of Aqaba where they were joined with frankincense and myrrh coming north both by sea and overland along trade routes through the mountains running north along the east coast of the Red Sea.
I will give thee Punt, the whole of it I will lead your soldiers by land and by water, on mysterious shores, which join the harbours of incense They will take incense as much as they like. They will load their ships to the satisfaction of their hearts with trees of green [i. While the Egyptians "were not particularly well versed in the hazards of sea travel, and the long voyage to Punt, must have seemed something akin to a journey to the moon for present-day explorers They arrived safely at the desert-country of Coptos: They [the goods] were loaded, in travelling overland, upon asses and upon men, being reloaded into vessels at the harbour of Coptos.
They [the goods and the Puntites] were sent forward downstream, arriving in festivity, bringing tribute into the royal presence.
Flinders Petrie believed that the Dynastic Race came from or through Punt and that "Pan, or Punt, was a district at the south end of the Red Sea, which probably embraced both the African and Arabian shores. Wallis Budge stated that "Egyptian tradition of the Dynastic Period held that the aboriginal home of the Egyptians was Punt Due to her unusual appearance, the Queen was sometimes hypothesized to have had advanced steatopygia  or elephantiasis.
These products included gold and aromatic resins such as myrrhfrankincenseand ebony ; the wild animals depicted in Punt included giraffesbaboonshippotamusesand leopards. Consideration of the articles that the Egyptians obtained from Punt, notably gold and ivory, suggests, however, that these were primarily of African origin.
This leads us to suppose that the term Punt probably applied more to African than Arabian territory.
Punt, we are told by the Egyptians, is situated — in relation to the Nile Valley — both to the north, in contact with the countries of the Near East of the Mediterranean area, and also to the east or south-east, while its furthest borders are far away to the south.
Only the Arabian Peninsula satisfies all these indications. Lepoivre positions Punt at East of Egypt and associates it with the Arab kingdom, noting in the same time an Arab country called Adei in southeastern Egypt.
The author shows, in addition, that the wildlife of the Arabian Peninsula was before desertification a savannah with lions, leopards, giraffes, elephants Ina genetic study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back from Punt by the ancient Egyptians.
Led by a research team from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California, Santa Cruzthe scientists used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies that had been preserved in the British Museum. The researchers at first found that the mummies most closely matched modern specimens seen in Eritrea and Ethiopia as opposed to those in neighboring Somalia, with the Ethiopian specimens "basically due west from Eritrea".
The team did not have the opportunity to compare the mummies with baboons in Yemen. The scientists believed that such an analysis would yield similar results since, according to them, regional isotopic maps suggest that baboons in Yemen would closely resemble those in Somalia.
Professor Dominy, one of the lead researchers, concluded from this that "we think Punt is a sort of circumscribed region that includes eastern Ethiopia and all of Eritrea.
The secretary bird lives only in the African open grasslands and savannah, it is listed among the birds found in SudanEthiopiaEritreaDjiboutiand Somaliathe bird is not found in Arabia.The expedition to Punt seems thus to have been regarded by Hatshepsut as an event of equal importance to her own birth!
This alone would virtually demand that she took part in the trip. Velikovsky quoted several of the surviving Punt inscriptions which he claimed were the words of the Queen herself, speaking in the first person, describing her. Just as Immanuel Velikovsky argued in (Ages in Chaos), the mysterious Land of Punt, to which Hatshepsut launched a famous expedition, was truly the land of Israel; and her great funerary monument at Deir el Bahri, to the west of Thebes, contains an actual description of .
A tree in front of Hatshepsut's temple, claimed to have been brought from Punt by Hatshepsut's Expedition which is depicted on the Temple walls.
(CC BY-SA ) Top image: A stone statue of Hatshepsut (CC BY-SA ) and Egyptian soldiers from Hatshepsut's expedition to the Land of Punt as depicted from her temple at Deir el-Bahri. Hatshepsut Describe the expedition to Punt in the reign of Hatshepsut. (10 marks) The expedition into punt during the reign of Hatshepsut took place prior to or during the ninth year of her reign and involved a lengthy voyage along the Nile somewhere in the vicinity of .
Hatshepsut Describe the expedition to Punt in the reign of Hatshepsut. (10 marks) The expedition into punt during the reign of Hatshepsut took place prior to or during the ninth year of her reign and involved a lengthy voyage along the Nile somewhere in the vicinity of present-day Somalia.
Hatshepsut's character and personal history is another story, this page is dedicated to her expedition to Punt. This expedition is an indicator of her leadership and skill in motivating and governing the Egyptian society of her time to high ach i evement.