Supporting Hierarchical Locking Before explaining the different lock modes in the Berkeley DB conflict matrix, let's talk about how the locking subsystem supports hierarchical locking. Hierarchical locking is the ability to lock different items within a containment hierarchy. For example, files contain pages, while pages contain individual elements.
This unary operator takes one argument, either a filename or a filehandle, and tests the associated file to see if something is true about it. Unless otherwise documented, it returns 1 for true and '' for false, or the undefined value if the file doesn't exist.
Despite the funny names, precedence is the same as any other named unary operator, and the argument may be parenthesized like any other unary operator. The operator may be any of: There may be other reasons you can't actually iwrite application, write, or execute the file.
Such reasons may be for example network filesystem access controls, ACLs access control listsread-only filesystems, and unrecognized executable formats. Also note that, for the superuser on the local filesystems, the -r, -R, -wand -W tests always return 1, and -x and -X return 1 if any execute bit is set in the mode.
Scripts run by the superuser may thus need to do a stat to determine the actual mode of the file, or temporarily set their effective uid to something else. If you are using ACLs, there is a pragma called filetest that may produce more accurate results than the bare stat mode bits.
When under the use filetest 'access' the above-mentioned filetests will test whether the permission can not be granted using the access family of system calls. Also note that the -x and -X may under this pragma return true even if there are no execute permission bits set nor any extra execute permission ACLs.
This strangeness is due to the underlying system calls' definitions. Read the documentation for the filetest pragma for more information. The -T and -B switches work as follows.
The first block or so of the file is examined for odd characters such as strange control codes or characters with the high bit set. Also, any file containing null in the first block is considered a binary file. If -T or -B is used on a filehandle, the current stdio buffer is examined rather than the first block.
If any of the file tests or either the stat or lstat operators are given the special filehandle consisting of a solitary underline, then the stat structure of the previous file test or stat operator is used, saving a system call. This doesn't work with -t, and you need to remember that lstat and -l will leave values in the stat structure for the symbolic link, not the real file.Grammarly's free writing app makes sure everything you type is easy to read, effective, and mistake-free.
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