In each of the three assessments, students will generate their own text and analyze text generated by others. The varied contexts contained in language arts literacy will enable students to demonstrate their knowledge of language use and will further develop their literacy experiences.
In order to help raters make a judgment they are provided with a rating scale, which usually consists of a number of levels or bands. Each band is described using a prose descriptor UK or rubric US.
The rating scales can be classified into a number of broad types, as follows: Holistic Scoring A single score is awarded, which is designed to reflect the overall quality of the performance. The descriptors or rubrics are general in nature, drawing on theories of communicative language ability that affect all language use.
Primary Trait Scoring As with holistic scoring, a single score is awarded. However, the descriptors or rubrics are developed for each individual prompt or question that is used in the test.
Each prompt is developed to elicit a certain type of language, perhaps an argumentative essay in an academic context, for example. The rating scale would then reflect the specific qualities of such a writing sample at a number of levels, with samples of writing that exemplify each level.
Multiple Trait Scoring Unlike the two scale types already mentioned, mutliple trait scoring requires raters to award two or more scores for different features or traits of the speech or writing sample. The traits are normally prompt or prompt-type specific.
The argument in favour of this type of scoring is that richer information is provided about each performance. In the case of an essay this may include traits like organization, coherence, cohesion, content, and so on. Such detailed scoring should also provide diagnostic information that is useful for both learner and teacher.
But there's a problem with multiple trait scoring. This is referred to as the Halo Effect. This was defined by Thorndike in as "a problem that arises in data collection when there is carry-over from one judgment to another. If raters are given 5 scales each with 9 points, and they award a score of 5 on the first scale for a piece of writing, it is highly likely that they will score 5 on the second and subsequent scale, and be extremely reluctant to move too far away from this generally.
As a result what we find is that profiles tend to be 'flat', defeating the aim of providing informative, rich information, on learner performance. The speaker is from the field of management. He is discussing a context in which business analysts are asked to rate the performance of companies on 9 different rating scales he calls them "categories" to decide which is the most successful company for a given year.
As you listen, ask yourself the following questions:task and all other New Jersey writing prompts, the HSPA expository tasks will be scored using the New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, which is used to determine that a student has written a focused essay with several key ideas that are elaborated with specific.
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