Philosophers pondered the subject with an open mind, balancing notions of morality and free will, and ultimately believing it better to depart in peace rather than live a life of misery. Medical practitioners routinely assisted in mercy killings, providing poisons to patients who wished to end prolonged sickness or suffering. This relatively tolerant attitude would change dramatically with the rise of Christianity. The early Christian sects themselves gave little value to life in this world.
Edward VI —53 Henry was succeeded by his nine-year-old son, Edward VIbut real power passed to his brother-in-law, Edward Seymour, earl of Hertfordwho became duke of Somerset and lord protector shortly after the new reign began.
Somerset ruled in Secularization in north somerset parentis; the divinity of the crown resided in the boy king, but authority was exercised by an uncle who proved himself to be more merciful than tactful and more idealistic than practical. The treason and heresy acts were repealed or modified, and the result came close to destroying the Tudor state.
The moment idle tongues could speak with impunitythe kingdom broke into a chorus of religious and social discord. Written primarily by Thomas Cranmerthe first prayer book of Edward VI was a literary masterpiece but a political flop, for it failed in its purpose.
It sought to bring into a single Protestant fold all varieties of middle-of-the-road religious beliefs by deliberately obscuring the central issue of the exact nature of the mass—whether it was a miraculous sacrament or a commemorative service.
Somerset is best remembered for these religious reforms, but their effectiveness was much blunted by their association with greed. Henry VIII had plundered and dissolved the monasteries and had mounted a half-successful campaign to accuse the monastic communities of corruption, licentiousness, and putting obedience to a foreign power above their obedience to him.
Their descendants watched the desecration with sullen anger. But the Scots broke their promise and shipped Mary off to France with the intention of marrying her to the heir of the French throne.
Foreseeing the permanent annexation of Scotland to France in the same way that the Netherlands had been annexed to SpainSomerset determined to conquer the Scottish Lowlands and to establish permanent castles and strongholds as a buffer between the kingdoms. Somerset was no more successful in solving the economic and social difficulties of the reign.
Rising prices, debasement of the currency, and the cost of war had produced an inflationary crisis in which prices doubled between and A false prosperity ensued in which the wool trade boomed, but so also did enclosures with all their explosive potential.
The result was social revolution. Certainly, the peasants thought that he favoured the element in the House of Commons that was anxious to tax sheep raisers and to curb enclosures and that section of the clergy that was lashing out at economic inequality.
In the summer ofthe peasantry in Cornwall and Devonshire revolted against the Prayer Book in the name of the good old religious days under Henry VIII, and, almost simultaneously, the humble folk in Norfolk rose up against the economic and social injustices of the century.
At the same time that domestic rebellion was stirring, the protector had to face a political and international crisis, and he proved himself to be neither a farsighted statesman nor a shrewd politician. He embroiled the country in a war with Scotland that soon involved France and ended in an inconclusive defeat, and he earned the enmity and disrespect of the members of his own council.
In the eyes of the ruling elite, Somerset was responsible for governmental ineptitude and social and religious revolution.
The result was inevitable: The duke was a man of action who represented most of the acquisitive aspects of the landed elements in society and who allied himself with the extreme section of the Protestant reformers.
Under Northumberland, England pulled out of Scotland and in returned Boulogne to France; social order was ruthlessly reestablished in the countryside, the more conservative of the Henrician bishops were imprisoned, the wealth of the parish churches was systematically looted, and uncompromising Protestantism was officially sanctioned.
The Ordinal of transformed the divinely ordained priest into a preacher and teacher, The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI was avowedly Protestant, altars were turned into tables, clerical vestments gave way to plain surplices, and religious orthodoxy was enforced by a new and more stringent Act of Uniformity.
How long a kingdom still attached to the outward trappings of Roman Catholicism would have tolerated doctrinal radicalism and the plundering of chantry lands and episcopal revenues under Somerset and Northumberland is difficult to say, but in the ground upon which Northumberland had built his power crumbled: Edward was dying of consumption.
The gamble failed, for when Edward died on July 6,the kingdom rallied to the daughter of Catherine of Aragon.
Whatever their religious inclinations, Englishmen preferred a Tudor on the throne. In nine days the interlude was over, and Northumberland and his daughter-in-law were in the Tower of London. Mary I —58 Roman Catholicism was not a lost cause when Mary came to the throne.
If she had lived as long as her sister Elizabeth was to live the womb cancer from which Mary died in not only brought her Catholic restoration to an end but rendered her childless and heirlessEngland would probably have been an irrevocably Catholic country.
Mary was indeed determined to restore Catholicism, but she was also determined to act in accordance with the law. New monasteries were to be created, but the vast wealth of the dissolved ones remained in lay hands.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Review and pay your bill, sign-up to pay your bill automatically, and see the latest upgrade offers and deals.
Sign-in to My Verizon today! The factors controlling human fertility and the development of rational therapies to limit births are not necessarily more difficult to understand than the isolation and cure of bacterial diseases.
Läsdagboken är från oktober och framåt. Ångrar djupt att jag inte började med det här för år sedan. Läser drygt böcker om året tydligen, . Although suicide has always been considered to be the most personal of acts, it has a complex social and cultural history in the Western world – one that has been shaped by three-thousand years of shifting moralities, public opinions, popular superstitions, religious beliefs, medical interpretations and philosophical debates.
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United Kingdom - Edward VI (–53): Henry was succeeded by his nine-year-old son, Edward VI, but real power passed to his brother-in-law, Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford, who became duke of Somerset and lord protector shortly after the new reign began. Somerset ruled in loco parentis; the divinity of the crown resided in the boy king, but authority was exercised by an uncle who proved.