Open in a separate window In contrast, systematic review articles B claim that, if possible, they consider all published studies on a specific theme—after the application of previously defined inclusion and exclusion criteria The aim is to extract relevant information systematically from the publications.
Two studies were scored as high quality. Methodological quality scores were particularly low for the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments.
Based on the results of the best-evidence synthesis, we found evidence of a significant longitudinal positive relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Because we found only 2 high-quality studies, future high-quality studies are needed to confirm our findings.
These studies should thoroughly examine the dose-response relationship between physical activity and academic performance as well as explanatory mechanisms for this relationship. Physical activity and sports are generally promoted for their positive effect on children's physical health; regular participation in physical activity in childhood is associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk in youth and adulthood.
There are several hypothesized mechanisms for why exercise is beneficial for cognition, including 1 increased blood and oxygen flow to the brain 3 ; 2 increased levels of norepinephrine and endorphins, 45 resulting in a reduction of stress and an improvement of mood 6 ; and 3 increased growth factors that help to create new nerve cells and support synaptic plasticity.
Although schools are able to offer unique opportunities for structured physical activity for children, there is a tendency to cut back physical education lessons. The increasing pressures to improve academic scores often lead to additional instructional time for subjects such as mathematics and language at the cost of time for being physically active.
Given the suggested relationship and the ongoing discussions on the replacement of physical education lessons by academic subjects, we aimed to review the evidence on the longitudinal relationship between these 2 variables. Two previous reviews 910 have studied the influence of physical activity on academic performance.
Trudeau and Shephard 9 present an overview of the literature on the relationship between physical activity in the school setting and several outcome measures, including academic performance. Based on quasi-experimental data, they report that physical education programs demand a substantial reduction in time allocated for academic tuition.
Because the children's academic performance did not change, they conclude that learning efficiency had improved.
Furthermore, Trudeau and Shephard report that cross-sectional studies generally indicate a positive association between physical activity and academic achievement. The review by Taras 10 argues that there may be some acute beneficial effects of physical activity, but the long-term improvement of academic achievement is not well established.
Taras concludes that the acute cognitive benefits of physical activity may adequately compensate for time spent away from academic areas. To summarize, the literature provides inconclusive evidence on the positive longitudinal relationship between physical activity and academic performance.
However, there is a strong general belief that this relationship is present, and research in this area is ongoing.
No systematic review with the specific focus on the longitudinal relationship between general physical activity and academic performance has been performed.
Therefore, we present in this article the results of a systematic review of the literature, examining this longitudinal relationship. We include only prospective data and take into account the methodological quality of the studies.
Methods Selection of the literature We performed a computerized search in 4 electronic bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central, and Sportdiscus from throughusing search terms suitable to each specific database. The search strategy consisted of 3 elements:A systematic review is a highly rigorous review of existing literature that addresses a clearly formulated question.
Systematic reviews are regarded as the best source of research evidence. This article discusses the types of systematic review, systematic review protocol and its registration, and the best approach to conducting and writing a .
This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the effects of long-acting muscarinic antagonist vs placebo or vs other controllers as an add-on therapy to in.
Note: As the corresponding author and guarantor of the manuscript, Crystal Smith-Spangler, MD, MS, takes full responsibility for the work as a whole, including the study design, access to data, and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Acknowledgment: The authors thank the staff of.
Searching the Gray Literature; Managing the Process; Covidence is an online systematic review management tool that allows for independent title/abstract screening, full text screening, data extraction and risk of bias .
Abstract. Background. A fragmented research field exists on the prevalence of anxiety disorders. Here, we present the results of a systematic review of reviews on this topic. We included the highest quality studies to inform practice and policy on this issue. Citing Literature. Number of times cited: Francine S.
Costa. For this systematic review and one-step and two-step meta-analysis of individual participant data, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trials of vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 supplementation in people with asthma that reported incidence of asthma exacerbation, published.