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Posted on November 30, by Scott Alexander [epistemic status: My bias is against the current college system doing much good. I have tried not to be bogged down by this bias, but take it into account when reading my interpretations below.
An earlier version of this post claimed that one paper had shown a u-shaped relationship between time spent in college and critical thinking. A commenter pointed out this was true only of a subset in two-year colleges, but not of four-year colleges or college in general — which shows the expected linear relationship.
I am sorry for the error, and correcting it somewhat increases my confidence in college building critical thinking. The evidence sort of supports him, but with the usual caveats and uncertainties. First of all, what the heck is critical thinking?
Luckily, we have a very objective scientific answer: Most studies on this issue are terrible because they lack control groups. That is, they measure students when they enter college, measure them again when they leave college, and find that their critical thinking ability has improved.
But this could be for any number of reasons. Maybe older people generally have better critical thinking than younger people. Maybe life experience builds critical thinking. Maybe college had nothing to do with any of it.
The best meta-analysis of such studies, MacMillanfinds exactly this, and concludes: Overall these studies suggest that seniors, in the main, are probably better at critical thinking than freshmen.
However, since the most compelling data were gathered through weak pretest-posttest or longitudinal designs, it is difficult to separate out the effect of college from the maturational effects that occur despite college.
But in any case we need a better study design to conclude anything from this.
There are two studies with moderately good designs, both by a guy named Pascarella. The first compares 30 college students to 17 matched non-college students and follows them up for one year. The secondlarger study compares students doing college full-time to students doing college part-time, under the theory that if college is causing the effect, then a little college should cause a small effect, but lots of college should cause a big effect.
They find this in the four-year college sample, and a garbled u-shaped mess in the two-year college sample. At least the four-year sample, which is what most people are interested in, looks good.
On the other hand, some other studies find less impressive effect sizes.Science and technology loom large in debates about higher education, but if democracy and a vibrant culture are among our goals, liberal learning must be part of the mix.
Critical Thinking and the Social Studies Teacher. by Mike Yell The advance of knowledge has been achieved not because the mind is capable of memorizing what teachers say but because it can be disciplined to ask probing questions and pursue them in a reasoned, self-critical way. Welcome to GAMSAT Sample Essays – partner website to Gamsat Sample Questions.
This website contains a series of tutorials and exercises for anyone looking to improve their score on GAMSAT Section II. Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument.
Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the .
How will you use critical thinking in everyday life? The relevance of critical thinking practice is clearly seen outside the classroom. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing [Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, Bonnie Lisle] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Rereading America remains the most widely adopted book of its kind because it works: instructors tell us time and again that they've watched their students grow as critical .